U.S. Colonialism and Puerto Rican Identity

Efrén Rivera Ramos, The Legal Construction of Identity: The Judicial and Social Legacy of American Colonialism in Puerto Rico (American Psychological Association, 2001).

César J. Ayala and Rafael Bernabe, Puerto Rico in the American Century: A History Since 1898 (UNC Press, 2007).

Laura Briggs, Reproducing Empire: Race, Sex, Science, and U.S. Imperialism in Puerto Rico (University of California Press, 2002).

Jorge Duany, The Puerto Rican Nation on the Move: Identities on the Island  and in the United States (UNC Press, 2002).

Ramón Grosfoguel, Colonial Subjects: Puerto Ricans in a Global Perspective (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003).

Edwin Meléndez and Edgardo Meléndez, eds., Colonial Dilemma: Critical Perspectives on Contemporary Puerto Rico (South End Press, 1993).

Further Reading: