U.S. Colonialism and Puerto Rican Identity

Efrén Rivera Ramos, The Legal Construction of Identity: The Judicial and Social Legacy of American Colonialism in Puerto Rico (American Psychological Association, 2001).

César J. Ayala and Rafael Bernabe, Puerto Rico in the American Century: A History Since 1898 (UNC Press, 2007).

Laura Briggs, Reproducing Empire: Race, Sex, Science, and U.S. Imperialism in Puerto Rico (University of California Press, 2002).

Jorge Duany, The Puerto Rican Nation on the Move: Identities on the Island  and in the United States (UNC Press, 2002).

Ramón Grosfoguel, Colonial Subjects: Puerto Ricans in a Global Perspective (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003).

Edwin Meléndez and Edgardo Meléndez, eds., Colonial Dilemma: Critical Perspectives on Contemporary Puerto Rico (South End Press, 1993).

Pablo Delano, “A New Museum for an Old Colony, Puerto Rico“, The New York Times, 2017.

Peter James Hudson, Bankers and Empire: How Wall Street Colonized the Caribbean, University of Chicago Press, 2017.

Further Reading: