1898 and the Un-Incorporation of Puerto Rico

Charles R. Venator-Santiago “Are Puerto Ricans really American citizens?” The Conversation March 22, 2017

Christina Duffy Burnett and Burke Marshall, eds., Foreign in a Domestic Sense: Puerto Rico, American Expansion, and the Constitution (Duke University Press, 2001).

Bartholomew Sparrow, The Insular Cases and the Emergence of American Empire (University Press of Kansas, 2006).

Gerald L. Neuman and Tomiko Brown-Nagin, eds,.  Reconsidering the Insular Cases: The Past and Future of the American Empire (Harvard University Press, 2015).

José Trías Monge, Puerto Rico: The Trials of the Oldest Colony in the World ( Yale University Press, 1997).